COS
COS is a BASIC function which returns the Cosine of the angle (passed as a parameter).
Availability  Present in all original versions of BBC BASIC.  
Syntax  BASIC IV  <numvar> = COS( <numeric>)

Token (hex)  BASIC IV  9B (function)

Description  BASIC IV  Returns the Cosine of the angle (passed as a parameter) 
Associated keywords  SIN , TAN , ATN , ASN , ACS

Contents 
Description
COS
accepts a single parameter (the angle), and returns the Cosine of that angle.
Internal Operation
Overview
COS(x)
If the absolute value of the parameter (x) is more than 8388607 (i.e. the exponent of the FloatingPoint value is larger than 151 (#&97)), Error 'Accuracy Lost' will be generated.
Test that the parameter (x) is within the required range: 0.785398 to 0.785398 [i.e. (PI/4) to (PI/4)]
The test is done by adding PI/4 (0.785398) to the parameter and multiplying the result by 2/PI (0.636619772)  let's call this value y. This result is then converted to an Integer value  let's call this value z. If the result is less than 1 (i.e. 0), then the value is in the required range, otherwise, z indicates how far the value lies from the range.
If the value is not within the required range, the value must be reduced so that it falls within the range. This is done by multiplying 1.57080078 by the value z, adding the result of this calculation to the original parameter x value (modifying the value of x); then multiplying 0.00000445445511 by the value z and adding the result of this calculation to the parameter x value (modifying the value of x). The value x will now be within the required range. Note: subtracting 0.00000445445511 from 1.57080078 results in 1.57079632554489 (which is PI/2).
Next, square the value x  Let's call this value w.
Now, we need to calculate the Cosine Fraction (the value we need to modify the value x by to obtain the Cosine value). Let's call this Cosine Fraction s.
If w is less than 2E20 (or thereabouts  i.e. the Floating Point exponent value is less than #&40), then use 1.0 as the Cosine Fraction (s) value, as the parameter x value is too small to evaluate, so the result that is returned in this case will be x.
Calculate the reciple of the value w  let's call this value u [u = 1/w].
v = 0.0119090311 + u
Cycle 1:
v = 0.000107499459 / v
v = v + 0.0171640246
v = v + u (reciple value of w)
Cycle 2:
v = 0.0013095369 / v
v = v + 0.0499999922
v = v + u (reciple value of w)
Last Cycle:
v = 0.166666666 / v
v = v + 1.0
The Cosine Fraction (s) is the result of the above cycle calculations  i.e. v; therefore > s = v.
Multiply s by the parameter value x [s = s * x]
Next, increment the value z by 1. If z is an even number then adjust the calculated s value as follows: Square the value s, subtract this result from 1.0, and set the s value to the squareroot (SQR) of the result [i.e.: s = SQR(1.0  (s * s))].
Note: Sine checks for z being an odd value, and cosine checks for an even value, before carrying out the adjustment described above.
Lastly, if the value z is divisible by 2 (but not by a power of 2  i.e. 4, 8, 16, 32, 64; or a combination of these powers  i.e. 12 (4 + 8), etc...), the Cosine result is the complement of s [COS(x) = s]; otherwise, the Cosine result is s [COS(x) = s].
Note: Incrementing z by 1 (with the above calculations) helps to alter the s value so that when the value is adjusted, the cosine result will be generated, rather than the Sine result.
Detailed
BASIC 4 implements COS as follows:
On entry to the COS routine, the carry flag will be set  this indicates that the Cosine result is required (a clear carry flag indicates that the Sine result is required!).
Routine &A93A does the following:
 Call routine &96DA to obtain the value at the Text pointer B location (convert it to Float if it is Integer or issue 'Type mismatch' error if it is a String value).
 If the FWA exponent (location &30) is more than or equal to #&98 then issue 'Accuracy lost' error as the FWA value is too large to use to calculate the SIN/COS value.
 Store the FWA value to temporary Floating point value location &046C&0470.
 Set the argument pointer (&4A&4B) to &BF2E (which points to the Float value 1.57079633 in the FloatingPoint constant table).
 Call &A4E0 to unpack the FloatingPoint constant at &BF2E (1.57079633, which is PI/2) to the FWB
 Store the FWA sign (location &2E) in the FWB sign byte (location &3B) so that the PI/2 value has the same sign as the argument (the FWA value).
 Decrement the FWB exponent (location &3C) to divide the FWB value by 2  so the FWB now contains the value 0.785398165.
 Set A to #&33.
 Call routine &A9D4 to set the argument pointer (&4A&4B) to &BF00 + A = &BF33 (which points to the Float value 0.636619772 (which is 2/PI) in the FloatingPoint constant table) and then multiply the FWA by the Float value pointed to by the argument pointer (&4A&4B).
 Call routine &96C3 to convert the Float value (FWA) to an Integer and place the result in the IWA.
 Store A (the LSB of the IWA value  from location &2A) in location &49.
 If the Integer value (&2A&2C) is zero then jump to &A98D (as the FWA value does not need to be reduced to a value within the required range (PI/4) to (PI/4) [i.e. 0.785398 to 0.785398]), so [&A98D] load the FWA with the original Sine/Cosine argument (from location &046C&0470).
 Otherwise, the FWA value is out of the Sine/Cosine range, and needs to be reduced, so:
 Call &8189 to convert the Integer value (IWA) to a Float and store the result in the temporary Floatingpoint variable located at &0471&0475.
 Then set the argument pointer (&4A&4B) to pointer to &BF24 (which is the Floatingpoint constant value 1.57080078) and multiply the FWA by this constant.
 Set the argp pointer (&4A&4B) to point to the temporary Floatingpoint variable location &046C (which is the original FWA Sine/Cosine argument value) and add the FloatingPoint value at &046C&0470 to the FWA value.
 Store the result in temporary FloatingPoint value location &046C&0470.
 Set the FWA to the FloatingPoint value stored at location &0471&0475 (the IWA value).
 Set the argument pointer (&4A&4B) to point to &BF29 (the address of the value 0.00000445445511 in the FloatingPoint constant table).
 Multiply the FWA by the FloatingPoint constant 0.00000445445511 (store the result in the FWA).
 Set the argument pointer (&4A&4B) to &046C and add the FloatingPoint value at &046C&0470 to the FWA.
 Jump to &A990 to perform the Cosine calculation as the value is now within the required range.
 [A990] Store the FWA value (the actual Cosine argument, which has been reduced where necessary) to location &0476&047A.
 Multiply the FWA by the Floatingpoint value at &0476&047A (i.e. square the FWA value).
 Set X to #&74 (i.e. the LSB of the first fraction to apply)
 Set A to #&92 (i.e. the LSB of the default value (if the FWA value is too small to evaluate)
 Set Y to #&02 (the number of continuedfraction expansion cycles to evaluate)
 Call routine &A861 to evaluate the continuedfraction expansions, as follows:
 If the FWA exponent is less than #&40 then the FWA value is too small to evaluate, so exit with the FWA set to the FloatingPoint constant at &BF92 (i.e. 1.0).
 Calculate the reciple of the FWA value (FWA = 1/FWA) and store the result in the FWA and location &046C&0470
 Add the FloatingPoint constant at &BF74 (0.0119090311) to the FWA
 Cycle 1:
 Divide the FloatingPoint constant at &BF79 (0.000107499459) by the FWA, storing the result in the FWA.
 Add the FloatingPoint constant at &BF7E (0.0171640246) to the FWA.
 Add the Reciple value (from location &046C&0470) to the FWA.
 Cycle 2:
 Divide the FloatingPoint constant at &BF83 (0.0013095369) by the FWA, storing the result in the FWA.
 Add the FloatingPoint constant at &BF88 (0.0499999922) to the FWA.
 Add the Reciple value (from location &046C&0470) to the FWA.
 Last Cycle calculation:
 Divide the FloatingPoint constant at &BF8D (0.166666666) by the FWA, storing the result in the FWA.
 Add the FloatingPoint constant at location &BF92 (1.0) to the FWA.
 Multiply the FWA by the Temporary FloatingPoint variable stored at location &0476&047A (the argument value).
 Exit with A = #&FF (as the result is a FloatingPoint value in the FWA)
Now, the FWA contains either the Sine result or the Cosine result (which will have to be converted to the value requested by the user).
Retrieve the carry flag value from the 6502 stack. As the carry flag is set (Cosine result required), increment the value stored at location &49 (the integer part of the FWA argument value).
[&A923] If bit 0 of location &49 is clear (i.e. the original argument was an even value (in the case of Sine)  or an odd value (in the case of Cosine)) then Set A to #&FF (to indicate that the result is a Floatingpoint value) and
[&A917] check the value in location &49  if bit 1 is not set then complement the FWA value (FWA=FWA) and exit; otherwise, just exit.
Otherwise, bit 0 of location &49 is set (indicating that the original argument was odd (in the case of Sine) or even (in the case of Cosine); so, adjust the calculated result as follows:
 Square the FWA value (FWA = FWA * FWA),
 Subtract the FWA value from 1 (FWA=1.0FWA) and
 Set the FWA value to the square root of the FWA (FWA=SQR(FWA)).
[&A917] check the value in location &49  if bit 1 is not set then complement the FWA value (FWA=FWA) and exit; otherwise, just exit.
Example 1: COS(1.5)
Set &046C = 1.5 (the argument)
Set FWB to 0.785398165 (PI/4)
FWA = FWA + FWB = 2.285398
FWA = FWA * 0.636619772 = 1.4549294
?&49 = 1 (Integer part of FWA value). FWA = IWA = 1
Store the FWA in &0471
FWA = FWA * 1.57080078 = 1.57080078
FWA = FWA + &046C = 0.07080078
Store FWA in &046C
Store &0471 (1) in FWA
FWA = FWA * 0.0000044544511 = 0.0000044544511
FWA = FWA + &046C = 0.0707963255
Store the FWA in &0476
FWA = FWA * FWA = 0.0050121197
[&A861]: FWA = 1 / FWA = 199.51638
Store FWA in &046C
FWA = FWA + 0.0119090311 = 199.504474778
FWA = 0.000107499 / FWA = 0.00000005388
FWA = 0.017164024 + FWA = 0.017163485
FWA = &046C + FWA = 199.499216515
FWA = 0.0013095369 / FWA = 0.000006564
FWA = 0.04999999 + FWA = 0.050006554
FWA = &046C + FWA = 199.566387
FWA = 0.16666666 / FWA = 0.00083514
FWA = 1 + FWA = 0.999164856
FWA = FWA * &0476 = 0.070737200377
Increment &49 > now &49 = 2
Bit 0 of &49 is clear and Bit 1 of &49 is set, indicating that the FWA value needs to be complemented  so exit with FWA =  FWA = 0.070737200377
Example 2: COS(0.75)
Set &046C = 0.75 (the argument)
Set FWB to 0.785398165 (PI/4)
FWA = FWA + FWB = 1.535398165
FWA = FWA * 0.636619772 = 0.9774646
?&49 = 0 (Integer part of FWA value). FWA = IWA = 0
[&A98D] As &49 is 0, store value at &046C in FWA = 0.75
Store the FWA in &0476
FWA = FWA * FWA = 0.5625
[&A861]: FWA = 1 / FWA = 1.777777
Store FWA in &046C
FWA = FWA + 0.0119090311 = 1.7896868
FWA = 0.000107499 / FWA = 0.00006
FWA = 0.017164024 + FWA = 0.0171039
FWA = &046C + FWA = 1.7606737
FWA = 0.0013095369 / FWA = 0.0007437
FWA = 0.04999999 + FWA = 0.0507436
FWA = &046C + FWA = 1.8285213
FWA = 0.16666666 / FWA = 0.0911482
FWA = 1 + FWA = 0.9088517
FWA = FWA * &0476 = 0.6816387
Increment &49 > now &49 = 1
Bit 0 of &49 is set, so adjust the calculated value as follows:
 FWA = FWA * FWA = 0.4646313
 FWA = 1  FWA = 0.5353686
 FWA = SQR(FWA) = 0.7316889
Bit 1 of &49 is not set, so exit with FWA unchanged.
Example 3: COS(0.0)
Set &046C = 0.0 (the argument)
Set FWB to 0.785398165 (PI/4)
FWA = FWA + FWB = 0.785398165
FWA = FWA * 0.636619772 = 0.50000000
?&49 = 0 (Integer part of FWA value). FWA = IWA = 0
[&A98D] As &49 is 0, store value at &046C in FWA = 0.0
Store the FWA in &0476
FWA = FWA * FWA = 0.0
[&A861]: FWA = 1.0 (as argument is zero)
FWA = FWA * &0476 = 0.0
Increment &49 > now &49 = 1
Bit 0 of &49 is set, so adjust the calculated value as follows:
 FWA = FWA * FWA = 0.0
 FWA = 1  FWA = 1.0
 FWA = SQR(FWA) = 1.0
Bit 1 of &49 is not set, so exit with FWA unchanged.
Example 4: COS(0.25)
Set &046C = 0.25 (the argument)
Set FWB to 0.785398165 (PI/4)
FWA = FWA + FWB = 1.0353982
FWA = FWA * 0.636619772 = 0.6591548
?&49 = 0 (Integer part of FWA value). FWA = IWA = 0
[&A98D] As &49 is 0, store value at &046C in FWA = 0.25
Store the FWA in &0476
FWA = FWA * FWA = 0.0625
[&A861]: FWA = 1 / FWA = 16
Store FWA in &046C
FWA = FWA + 0.0119090311 = 15.988091
FWA = 0.000107499 / FWA = 0.0000067
FWA = 0.0171640246 + FWA = 0.0171572
FWA = &046C + FWA = 15.982843
FWA = 0.0013095369 / FWA = 0.0000819
FWA = 0.04999999 + FWA = 0.0500818
FWA = &046C + FWA = 16.050082
FWA = 0.16666666 / FWA = 0.0103841
FWA = 1 + FWA = 0.9896158
FWA = FWA * &0476 = 0.2474039
Increment &49 > now &49 = 1
Bit 0 of &49 is set, so adjust the calculated value as follows:
 FWA = FWA * FWA = 0.0612086
 FWA = 1  FWA = 0.9387913
 FWA = SQR(FWA) = 0.9689124
Bit 1 of &49 is not set, so exit with FWA unchanged.
Example 5: COS(2.41)
Set &046C = 2.41 (the argument)
Set FWB to 0.785398165 (PI/4)
FWA = FWA + FWB = 3.195398
FWA = FWA * 0.636619772 = 2.0342533
?&49 = 2 (Integer part of FWA value). FWA = IWA = 2
Store the FWA in &0471
FWA = FWA * 1.57080078 = 3.1416014
FWA = FWA + &046C = 0.7316014
Store FWA in &046C
Store &0471 (2) in FWA
FWA = FWA * 0.0000044544511 = 0.0000089
FWA = FWA + &046C = 0.7315924
Store the FWA in &0476
FWA = FWA * FWA = 0.5352275
[&A861]: FWA = 1 / FWA = 1.8683641
Store FWA in &046C
FWA = FWA + 0.0119090311 = 1.8564551
FWA = 0.000107499 / FWA = 0.0000057
FWA = 0.017164024 + FWA = 0.0171583
FWA = &046C + FWA = 1.8512058
FWA = 0.0013095369 / FWA = 0.0007073
FWA = 0.04999999 + FWA = 0.0507072
FWA = &046C + FWA = 1.9190714
FWA = 0.16666666 / FWA = 0.0868475
FWA = 1 + FWA = 0.9131524
FWA = FWA * &0476 = 0.6680554
Increment &49 > now &49 = 3
Bit 0 of &49 is set, so adjust the calculated value as follows:
 FWA = FWA * FWA = 0.446298
 FWA = 1  FWA = 0.5537019
 FWA = SQR(FWA) = 0.7441115
Bit 1 of &49 is set, so FWA =  FWA = 0.7441115
Example 6: COS(5.63)
Set &046C = 5.63 (the argument)
Set FWB to 0.785398165 (PI/4)
FWA = FWA + FWB = 6.415398
FWA = FWA * 0.636619772 = 4.0841688
?&49 = 4 (Integer part of FWA value). FWA = IWA = 4
Store the FWA in &0471
FWA = FWA * 1.57080078 = 6.2832028
FWA = FWA + &046C = 0.6532028
Store FWA in &046C
Store &0471 (4) in FWA
FWA = FWA * 0.0000044544511 = 0.0000178
FWA = FWA + &046C = 0.6531849
[&A990] Store the FWA in &0476
FWA = FWA * FWA = 0.4266506
[&A861]: FWA = 1 / FWA = 2.3438381
Store FWA in &046C
FWA = FWA + 0.0119090311 = 2.3319291
FWA = 0.000107499 / FWA = 0.000046
FWA = 0.017164024 + FWA = 0.0171179
FWA = &046C + FWA = 2.3267202
FWA = 0.0013095369 / FWA = 0.0056282
FWA = 0.04999999 + FWA = 0.0556281
FWA = &046C + FWA = 2.3994662
FWA = 0.16666666 / FWA = 0.0694598
FWA = 1 + FWA = 0.9305401
FWA = FWA * &0476 = 0.6078147
Increment &49 > now &49 = 5
Bit 0 of &49 is set, so adjust the calculated value as follows:
 FWA = FWA * FWA = 0.3694387
 FWA = 1  FWA = 0.6305612
 FWA = SQR(FWA) = 0.7940788
Bit 1 of &49 is not set, so exit with FWA unchanged
Example 7: COS(90)
Set &046C = 90 (the argument)
Set FWB to 0.785398165 (PI/4)
FWA = FWA + FWB = 90.785398
FWA = FWA * 0.636619772 = 57.795773
?&49 = 57 (Integer part of FWA value). FWA = IWA = 57
Store the FWA in &0471
FWA = FWA * 1.57080078 = 89.53564
FWA = FWA + &046C = 0.4643601
Store FWA in &046C
Store &0471 (57) in FWA
FWA = FWA * 0.0000044544511 = 0.0002539
FWA = FWA + &046C = 0.464614
Store the FWA in &0476
FWA = FWA * FWA = 0.2158661
[&A861]: FWA = 1 / FWA = 4.6324998
Store FWA in &046C
FWA = FWA + 0.0119090311 = 4.6205908
FWA = 0.000107499 / FWA = 0.0000023
FWA = 0.017164024 + FWA = 0.0171616
FWA = &046C + FWA = 4.6153381
FWA = 0.0013095369 / FWA = 0.0002837
FWA = 0.04999999 + FWA = 0.0502836
FWA = &046C + FWA = 4.6827834
FWA = 0.16666666 / FWA = 0.0355913
FWA = 1 + FWA = 0.9644086
FWA = FWA * &0476 = 0.4480777
Increment &49 > now &49 = 58 (0011 1010)
Bit 0 of &49 is clear and Bit 1 of &49 is set, indicating that the FWA value needs to be complemented  so exit with FWA =  FWA = 0.4480777
Kranser 22:59, 2 October 2007 (BST)